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Tabouk City Profile



Tabouk City Profile


Situated in north-western Saudi Arabia, Tabouk is the provincial capital and headquarters of the Governor of the Tabuk region, local councils and branches of various governmental departments. The Tabouk region stretches north to Halat Ammar and Bir Bin Hammas; south to Omluj; east to Taima and Markaz; and west to the Red Sea. It is the northern gateway to the Kingdom, close to the Jordanian border. It is the largest city in North Western Saudi Arabia and is mainly a military town.


It is spread over an area of 104,000 square kilometers. The region's ancient history dates back to 1500 BC. It is believed that the region of Tabouk was the land of Madyan and Dadan mentioned in the Holy books. It was known by the name "Taboo" when, with the town of Al Ola, it was the capital a prosperous state in the region.


Tabuk is 2,200 feet above sea level. Standing high above sea level, the town of Tabouk enjoys an equitable climate. The climate in this area is mild in the summer when the average temperature reaches 29 degrees Celsius. During winter the average is 17 degrees Celsius although it can some times fall below zero. There is little rain in the area with an annual average of only 50 mm. Western, northwestern, and southwestern winds blow all year round.


The city has a long historical background, the marks of which can be still seen today. Tabuk Fort was built by the Ottaman Turks, Circa 1655 and has been recently restored by the Saudi Government. Tabouk was also one of the major stops on the Hejaz Railway and is in the region of Lawrence of Arabia fame.

Tabouk is a town of great antiquity. In 500 B.C. Tabouk (then known as Taboo) was, with Al-Ola, the capital of Al-Ayaneyean. Tabouk is rich in historic monuments dating from before and after the time of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. Today, it happily combines an egregious past with the benefits of modern development.

Modern Development

During the prosperous Saudi era, Tabouk has enjoyed the benefits of a comprehensive development program, energetically implemented. Tabuk has become famous for its agricultural products, particularly flowers. The region's flower exports to Europe include gladiola, lilies and statices.

Tabuk is a modern city with wide avenues lined with trees. The city serves as an active commercial center especially as it lies along the route of pilgrims coming from Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon to visit Mecca to pay homage.

Its climate is more moderate than most parts of Saudi Arabia and has developed into a major agricultural area. There are a number of dairy and poultry farms scattered around the city.

In Tabuk there are a number of supermarkets that sell western type food and goods as well as the traditional souqs where you will find Arabic and oriental merchandise. There are a number of restaurants in town that serve traditional and foreign food as well as international standard hotels that serve western type food

bulletArchaeological Features

It is one of the towns growing fast in the last twenty years. It is an ancient town dating back from 1500 B.C. The TABOUK invasion was one of the famous Islamic invasions.

TABOUK is a hint from the past and the present. Tabouk's historic monuments include the mosque in which the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, performed his prayers during the battle of Tabook. There is also the Tabuk fortress and the Hijaz Railway Station (the line used to link Al Madinah Al Munawarrah with Damascus during the Ottoman Era). Al Bidaa is an important archeological town of glorious history. Its rich civilization is reflected in the numerous caves carved in the mountain. There are also important archeological sites in Al Khuraibah, Rawwafa, Al Muwailih, Al Muzim and Taima. These include historic palaces and fortresses, wells, resting places and water wells.

Archaeologists found heritage position on FAHAH mountain composed of twenty circles connected to each other with diameter of one meter in addition to some ruins of cemetery with a diameter of 5 meters. The walls of the circles were made of organized stones on one side connected with a connection wall.

bulletMadian Land

It lies to the east of SEENA in north-east of Arabian Peninsula. Madian Land was mentioned in all religions. Archaeologists discovered many position to Madain Land on a surveying in the northern area. They found 13 positions go back to Madian eras.

bulletQaria Era

It lies to north-south of the Arabian Peninsula. It is 75 km to the north-west of TABOUK on AQABA-ROAD. The site is known with its natural obstacle and strong defense.

Qaria is composed of many low hills whereas its old building wall built as a separate section with a length of 3-4 meters to reduce the impact of earthquakes.

bulletAlbeda site (MOGHAIR SHOAEB)

It lies at the end of ALABIED white valley and it is called AFFEL on the east side on AQABA bay. It is 170 km west of Tabouk and is connected to ALOYINA.

The most important sites are NABATI cemetery with inscriptions on rocks. MADAEN SALEH had many inscriptions that go back to LAHYANI AND ANBATI Civilization.

bulletLahyani Civilization

Historian said they area a branch of THAMOD. They are southern Arabian people who worked in trade. They were strong and superior. Their trade was with the north of the Arabian Peninsula, mainly Syria and Egypt.


Nomadic Arabian tribes played a great role in the history of Arabian Peninsula and its trade; their estate expanded to the north-west of the Arabian Peninsula. Their capital city was ALBATRA.
Main Attractions

bulletRock art and inscriptions site in Wadi Dam
Hundreds of localities with rock art and inscriptions dating to different chronological periods and ranging from Paleolithic to the Islamic period were recorded at Wadi Dam and the region west of Tabuk. Study of the art revealed rich stylistic variability and both human and animal figures were represented in it. Tens of sites in the area with Thamudic Greek and Nabatean inscriptions have been found.

It is situated 79 km north- west of Tabuk. It is an agricultural settlement dating back to the end of the 2nd millennium B.C. It is located at the end of Wadi Afal, 220 km From Tabuk. There is found the famous Nabatean graves cut in the rocks (Mughair Shauib).

bulletRawafah Temple
It is situated at some 115 km south west of Tabuk. It was built during the Nabatean period 166-167 A.D.) and dedicated to a Roman Emperor.

bulletAl – Khuraiba
Its lies at a distance of 290 km. West of Tabuk on the Red Sea coast, Al-Khuraiba. It was a port on the Red Sea. It goes back to Nabatean times and it continued in use until aster the advent of Islam.

bulletQaal’at Al-Muazzam and Railway Station No. 27
Al Muazzam is a major station on the Levatine pilgrimage road. It has a castle with four stone lined walls and a square pool (Birkat) still in operational seasonal rains. Some travelers consider it was the “Pearl of the Hajj caravanserais”, side-by-side de with Qaal’at ad Sawra, 200 km south.

bulletQaal’at Al-Akhdhar and Railway Station No. 30
This is a major station on the Levantine pilgrimage road and is situated 75 km south east of Tabuk.

bulletQaal’at Tabuk
It is also known as the castle of Ashab Al-Ayka whoa re mentioned in the Holy Quran. The castle dates back to about 3500 B.C. and has been restored many times; the last was in 1062 H. (1651 A.D.).

bulletAin Sukkrah
This is an ancient spring dating to the Pre – Islamic era. It is said that during the invasion of Tabuk, Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) camped more than ten days near the spring and drank from its water.

bulletThe Prophet’s (PBUH) Mosque
It is also known as Repentance Mosque. It was originally built of mud and roof with palm trunk trees. It was restored in 1062 H (1652 A.D.) and finally its complete renewal was ordered by the late King Faisal Ibn Abdul-Aziz along the pattern of the Prophet’s Mosque in Madinah.

bulletOld Hijaz Railway Station in Town No. 36
It is the third largest station after Madinah and Mada’in Saleh stations.

bulletOld Hijaz Railroad
The best sections of this road between Tabuk and Mada’in Saleh (20 km long)



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