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Riyadh History



El Riyadh History

The capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; “el riyad” is the plural for “rawda” and means the rich orchards and gardens. It obtained its name due to being long ago one of the few regions amidst the desert that was distinguished for its fertile and green lands. Historians described it as a wide-range region, abundant in plantations and springs. El Riyadh was built on the remains of the City of (Hajar), that surmounted a hill of limited height amidst a small pond on both sides of the Western El Watar Valley (El Bat’haa), and it is one of Hanifa Valley streams. But as to El Riyadh name in specific, it was only known since about 300 years



Economically speaking, Trade and grazing had a special importance in Najad Hill, that is midway of Riyadh, as the city was a commercial center that connects the east of the Arabian Peninsula with its west, south, and north. Politically speaking, El Riyadh played a leading role in the history of Najad, as it was a capital during Imam Turkey Bin Abadallah reign when the second Saudi State rose up in 1240 HIJRI (1824 AD), and it strongly retained its glory when King Abed El Aziz (mercy be on his soul) regained it on the 5th of Shawwal 1319 HIJRI (15 January 1902 AD).


El Riyadh is located in the center of the world’s continents in accordance with the Kingdom’s geographical location. And this location gains another dimension as it is situated in the middle of the Kingdom in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula center, on a latitude (38.24) degrees north and a longitude (43.64) degrees east, and a height about 600m above sea level.


In a half century, El Riyadh was transformed from a small town surrounded by fences to a modern city. Its cultural development scope in its both first and second stages is (1782) km2, which exceeds the areas of many states, as an example, its area is three times Singapore’s area.
The first stage of the cultural scope covers the current city borders (about 632 km2), whereas the second stage covers the remaining area (1150km2), and the current developed area is about 950 km2. This reflects the grand expansion the region is witnessing after it has outgone its fences, to become one of the three biggest civilized regions in the Kingdom, along with the civilized region for Mecca and Jedda in Mecca, and the civilized region for El Dahran, El Dammam and El Khobar in the Eastern Region



El Messmak Citadel is considered one of the most important historical sites in the Kingdom as it holds a distinguished place in the history of El Riyadh City in particular and of the Saudi Arabia Kingdom in general


El Hakam Castle Region

These Holy country natives really deserve that El Hakam Castle region which resembles the central point of El Riyadh city and the starting point of constituting the Kingdom to obtain the care and attention that fit its distinguished place

El Der’eya Ancient City

It is a city that makes the hearts flutter and the souls vibrate as it witnessed the biggest religious reformation movement in the Islamic world



The National Museum

The National Museum was founded to be a national distinguishing mark on an equal level with the Saudi Arabia Kingdom to participate in enriching the educational course, intellectual consciousness, and develop the noble belonging, and to act as an immortal epistle.
The exhibits varied to include antique pieces, documents, scripts, display panels, in addition to using the various trendy devices, besides the documentary and scientific films.
The museum is distinguished for its integrated exhibits, and contributing a serial theme from the beginning of the universe creation to the modern age, and its basic point is about the Arabian Peninsula. Each main hall of the museum is devoted to introduce an independent and integrated objective display; and the museum consists of eight main display halls, arranged in an accurate historical sequence, where the visitor can reach it according to an architectural design taking into consideration its chronological sequence

The Festivals
El Janaderiya – The National Festival for Tradition and Culture


Is one of the biggest cultural festivals in the Arab World, and the most to attract visitors and participants. The festival is held in the period between Shawwal and Du El Uqda months every year, which means around month February. It had been fifteen continuous years since the launching of the festival and year after year it is gaining more brilliancy and success; and in year 1420 HIJRI, the fifteenth festival was held which was a huge celebration, and a continuous traditional and cultural wedding feast, which attracted thousands of visitors from inside and outside the Kingdom




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