Madinah City Profile
The Holy Mosque
King Fahd Expansion
Places to Visit
Mountains & Wells
Manners & Rituals
Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah is the second holy city to Muslims after Makkah Al-Mukkaramah. It has also got many other names such as Taibah, Yathrib, the City of the Messenger, and Dar Al-Hijri (i.e. Home of Immigration). It is the city whose people supported Prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him) when he immigrated to it from Makkah. It comprises the Mosque of the Prophet, his grave, the Islamic University, King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Quran and many archaeological Islamic features. The first mosque of Islam is also located in Madinah and is known as Masjid Al Quba.
Madinah (Almadina Al-Munawara) the light city is the city of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and also his burial place. It was the first Islamic City to support the Prophet Muhammad, and it joined him in fighting decisive battles which were instrumental in the victory of Islam and its subsequent spread. This is the city of the "Ansaar" (Supporters) and their brothers the "Muhajireen" (Emigrants), who together formed the first Islamic army which entered Makkah in triumph eight years after the Prophet's "Hijrah" (Migration). It was a city which loved the Prophet, and which he in turn loved. On its soil he built his sacred mosque, and it was here that he was buried.
Madinah was also the city of the "Khulfai Rashiduun" (Orthodox Caliphs of Islam), who shouldered the responsibility of Jihad, or holy struggle, fighting against renegades and propagating Islam in the countries surrounding the Arabian Peninsula. It was the seat of the first Islamic state, and witnessed the Prophet's companions administering the affairs of the Moslem community, compiling the Holy Koran, and dispatching armies to Persia, Syria and Egypt.
To visit Madinah is not a Hajj or Umrah rite, but the unique merits of the Prophet's city, his Mosque and his sacred tomb attract every pilgrim to visit it. There is neither Ihram nor talbiyah for the visit to Madinah or the Prophet's Mosque.
The Prophet had great love for this city. He once said that "There is a cure for every disease in the dust of Madinah" (Al-Targhib).
The Prophet himself participated in the construction of this mosque, called it "My Mosque" and led prayers in it for years. He has also said that a prayer performed in the Prophet's Mosque is better than a thousand prayers in any other place except Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah. It was also reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) has also said: "The person who offers 40 prayers consecutively in my Mosque, without missing a prayer in between, will secure immunity from the fire of Hell and other torments and also from hypocrisy."
Madinah has 95 names, including Taibah, Tabah, Qubbat Al-Islam, Al-Mu'mina, Al-Mubarakah, Al-Mukhtarah, Dar Al-Abrar, Dar Al-Sunnah, Dar Al-Akhyar, Dar Al-Fateh, Dhat Al-Hirar, Dhat Al-Nakhl, Al-Barrah and Al-Jaberah.
Al Madinah Al Munawarah is located at Eastern Part of Al Hijaz Region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on longitude (39 36 6) and Latitude (24 28 6).
Madinah is located in the north-western part of the Kingdom, to the east of the Red Sea, which lies only 250 km (155 miles) away from it. It is surrounded by a number of mountains: Al-Hujaj, or Pilgrims' Mountain to the West, Salaa to the north-west, Al-E'er or Caravan Mountain to the south and Uhad to the north Madinah is situated on a flat mountain plateau at the junction of the three valleys of Al-Aql, Al-Aqiq, and Al-Himdh. For this reason, there are large green areas amidst a dry mountainous region. The city is 620 meters (2034 ft) above sea level. Its western and southwestern parts have many volcanic rocks. Madinah lies at the meeting-point of longitude 39 36' east and latitude 24 28' north. It covers an area of about 50 square kilometers (19 square miles).
Al Madinah Al Munawwarah is a desert oasis surrounded with mountains and stony areas from all sides. It was mentioned in several references and sources. It was known as Yatrib in Writings of ancient Maeniand, this is obvious evidence that the population structure of this desert oasis is a combination of north Arabs and South Arabs, who settled there and built their civilization during the thousand years before Christ.
Geographical Features of Al Madinah
Natural conditions have donated Al Madinah several features that made the city more important, water supplies in Al Madinah are abundant, its land is fertile with high and abundant productivity, there are natural roads and paths that link Al Madinah with Najid Tuhamah and Al Hijaz, in addition to the old trade road between south, north and east which made the city a center of important trade markers.
Geographical environment of Al Madinah consists of basalt and indesite rocks or metamorphosed schisr or granite rocks, which are traversed by a group of valleys that fall from the high mountains. The geological history of the area, with respect to its history and structure is related to the same history of Al Hijaz ridge.
The land of Al Madinah Al Munawwarah is fertile volcanic hill that inclines towards North direction. It is (597-639 Meters) above sea level. Al Madinah Al Munawwarah was a group of green oasis before the advancement of building; especially in the area form kaaba to the Eastern Stony area.
The area has a hot, continental climate. The climate is affected by the Mediterranean in the north and by the seasonal climate in the south. The temperature ranges between 36-45 degrees celsius during the summer months and between 15- 20 degrees Celsius during winter.
Little rain falls in this area with an average of only 94mm. When rain does fall it is generally in November and January.
There is low humidity most of the year, with an average of 22% that increases with rainfall to 35%. During summer the humidity rarely rises above 14%.
Southwesterly winds usually blow in the area. They are mostly hot and dry. The average speed of the wind is 5 - 8 knots per hour, which is considered to be quite strong.
The average temperature in summer is 30ú C and from May to September it may reach 46ú C.
The Lowest average temperature is in January, as it is 15ú C.
Humidity in Al Madinah Al Munaearah is considered among areas with the least degrees of humidity, where the average humidity is 22 degrees that rises in winter.
Quantity of rain in Al Madinah varies from of the year to another, it usually ranges from 0.70 MM to 4.0 MM Rains fall in winter, and in spring there are scattered showers.
Westerly from March to July and Easterly from November to February.
Velocity of the winds range from 5 to 8 knots through the year.
Topography of Al Madinah
Water Desalination stations at Yanbu, are the main source of fresh water for inhabitants and visitors of the holy places in Al Madinah.
THE HISTORY OF THE MADINAH
Al Madinah Al Munawwarah before the Prophetic Hijrah
Sources and references agree that Al Madinah before the Prophetic emigration was not an integrated urbanized city from either the population structure point of view or architectural point of view. The first inhabitation in the area was by Yathrib Bin Mahlaeil, the Amaliqide, whose pedigree is tracked back to Shem son of Noah, as mentioned by Al Zajahi. The first aggregation was in Adham area as mentioned in Wafa Al Wafa, which the area is known by the name Al Uyun (springs). As this area is a fertile land with abundant water, vegetables and fruits, it became a center of attraction for the emigrants from the neighboring areas. About 455 B.C. some Arabic tribes from the North had emigrated to Al Madinah. Al Madinah was mentioned in the Maeinian inscriptions, books of Ptolemaists and Geography of Byzantines especially the books of Ptolemy as it was also mentioned In the Holy Quran.
It is shown from what have been mentioned in historical sources that Al Madinah before Al Hijrah was a group of small residential communities with no tie, specially after the arrival of the Jewish settlers and their dependence on special communities, their Monopoly of gold trade, building of trade markets, building of forts and residential communities around the forts, as mentioned in the book of "Wafa Al Wafa".
On Monday, 8th Rabia I, corresponding to 20th September of the year 622 A.D. the Messenger arrived at Al Madinah, and people welcomed him with songs.
That was a distinct day in the history of Al Madinah, when the noble Messenger familiarized between the hated hearts and fraternized between Emigrants and supporters, and he built his Mosque, which became the center of the Capital of Islamic State, and the Center of command for the armies of conquest.
Since then, the residential communities changed into an urbanized residential unit. The Mosque was the first unit in the Islamic Urbanization structure; hence, the Holy Prophetic Mosque has become the center of Al Madinah Al Munawarah.
Al Madinah in the First Period of Islam
Epoch of the Noble Messenger and the Orthodox Caliphs (1h-40h)
In 17th Rabbia I of the first year of Al Hijrah, corresponding the year 14 of the blessed prophetic revival, and corresponding to 24th December of the year 622 A.D. the Messenger of Allah,( peace of Allah be upon him ) arrived of Al Madinah with his companion Abu Bakr Al Sideeq, may Allah be pleased with him.
Since that history, Al Madinah [Taybah] [Dar Al HijrahJ has become the center of Islamic radiation and the first capital of the Islamic world. Messenger had spent, and during eleven years that the Messenger had spent in Al Madinah before his demise, Islam spread in the Arabian Peninsula, and Allah (the Most High) completed his grace to his noble Messenger with the great conquest of Makkah Al Mukarramah. Then the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, completed his message in the pilgrimage of farewell, and in Arafah Day, Allah (the Most High) said:" Surah Al Ma'idah (3):
(This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed my favor upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion.
And the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, said in Khutbah Al Wadaa (farewell ceremony), "Learn your rituals from me, because I may not meet you after this year.
Al Mustafa Al Mukhtar demised on Monday, l2th Rabia of the year 11 H. Muslims forwarded by Omar Bin Al Khatab made the pledge of allegiance to Abu Bakr Al Sideeq, may Allah be pleased with him, as he was the second person with the Messenger in the cave, he is the father of the Messenger's wife, and he is the first one that the Messenger ( Peace of Allah be upon him ) deputized to lead people in performing of the prayer during the illness of the Messenger Sayyidna Abu Bakr Al Sideeq, may Allah be pleased with him, made great works that no one else could have done, and in two years, in which he was the caliph, the Islamic state managed to control who tried to dissident and managed to establish the bases of Islam. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, demised after he had appointed the great companion, Sayyidna Abu Bakr was hurried near the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, in the house of Al Sayeeda Aishah Bint Abu Bakar, may Allah be pleased with them all.
Sayyidina Omer Bin Al Khatab, may Allah be pleased with him, became the caliph in 22nd Jumada of the year 13 of Al-Hijrah, Sayyidina Omar is the one that the Messenger (Peace of Allah be upon him) said about him. "I have never seen a genius doing an unprecedented things such as Omar do". And he also said "If Omar followed a road, the devil would follow another road" and he is the companion that the Holy Quran approved his opinion in several circumstances such as Badr's captives prohibition of wine, and veil of women.
Messenger of Allah married his daughter, when the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, asked Allah to support Islam with one of the two Omar, it was Omar Bin Al Khatab. He was the first one in Islam who was called the Emir of believers (Ameer Al Moomineen), he has made the prophetic Hijrah the beginning of the Islamic calendar, and he is the one that Allah inspired him in "O Sarriah, the mountain, the mountain". Sayyidna Omar established the administrative and organizational structure of the Islamic state, he established the mail, he founded the bureaus, and the Islamic conquests extended under his rule. His rule in Al Madinah Al Munawarah continued until Zu Al Hija of the year 23 H, when he martyrized by a stab with a poisoned dagger from Abu Luluah Al Majusi, this was the interpretation of the dream that he had seen as a read cock. He was buried near his two friends in Aishah's house, may Allah be pleased with them.
The great companions of the emigrants and supporters met and agreed upon choosing Sayyidna Othman Bin Affan, companion of the Messenger, the one who married two of the Messenger's daughter, one of ten who are announced with paradise, the owner of Roumah well, the one that his trade was with Allah (the Most High), and the one who equipped Al Usra Army.
The great companion proceeded the great deeds which were started by Sayyidna Omar (May Allah be pleased with him) and he built the first military marine fleet in the Islamic state with which he invaded Europe in the Mediterranean Sea. Sayyidna Othman transferred Makkah Al Mukarramah seaport from Al Suhaiba to Jeddah.
With the extension of conquests, Sayyidna Othman found that the companions of the Messenger, (Peace of Allah be upon him) had dispersed in the conquest areas, and some of them had martyrized, and he was afraid that the Holy Quran might be lost. Accordingly, he had accomplished he most important and the greatest project, which was the gathering of the verses of Holy Quran that were kept in the hearts of men, the readers of the Messenger, (Peace of Allah be upon him).
The abstinent caliph demised in Zulhijjah of the year 35 H and he was buried in Baqeea of Al Garqad, (May Allah be pleased with him).
After the demise of Sayyidna Othman Bin Afan, Muslims agreed to Make pledge of allegiance to Sayyidna Ali Bin Abu Talib, may Allah honor him, as he is the cousin of the Messenger and the husband of his daughter, who sacrificed himself for the Messenger ( Peace of Allah be upon him ) in the night of his Hijrah from Makkah to Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, he is one of the first who believed in Mohammed and he was the first young man who believed in Mohammed, (Peace of Allah be upon him), he was one of the swords of Allah that supported the Prophet by the help of Allah, he had never bowed for an idol, he had never seen his genitals, and he is the husband of Fatima Al Zahara, daughter of the Messenger ( Peace of Allah be upon him ) and the father of Al Hassan and Al Hussain, the supreme of young men paradise people. He became the caliph in l7th of Zulhijjah of the year 35 of Al Hijrah.
Sayyidna Ali, may Allah be pleased with him and horror him, completed the establishment of the bases of the Islamic state. The Islamic scale began to be the subject of conspiracies of the enemies, accordingly, he commanded his armies in the third year of Al Hijrah and left Al Madinah as a fighter for the sake of Allah after he had deputized Sahl Bin Haneef in the year 37H and Abu Ayoub Al Ansari in the year 40H, and he martyrized in the 40 of Al Hijrah.
Principality of Almadinah Al Manawaraha
From the Ommiad Epoch, to the Saudi Epoch
After the establishment of the Ommaid state in Damascus under the Leadership of Muawiyah Bin Abi Sufiyan in the year 40 H, the center of the Islamic Caliphate transferred from Al Madinah to Damascus but Al Madinah preserved its importance and its position in the sentiment of the Islamic society.
Khalifas, Kings and Sultans did their best to appoint Amirs for Al Madinah in order to and administer its affairs. The glorious Sandi epoch arrived when Al Madinah surrendered in 19.5.1344 H, and Prince Mohammed Bin Abdul Aziz received in Madinah from the Commander of the military garrison of Al
Since the first day l9th Jumada 1 of the year 1344, the city of Messenger ( Peace of Allah be upon him) had gained the attention of the founder, King Abudl Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al Saud, the king of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and his sons after him. The city began to accompany the movement of development in this big entity.
THE PROPHETIC HOLY MOSQUE
When the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, migrated to Al Madinah, he stayed in Kaaba for some days, then he directed to Al Madinah, and when he entered Al Madinah, he left his she-camel to kneel were Allah wished. Where the she-camel had knelt, the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him. Wanted to build a Mosque on that piece of Land so, he bought an area which was owned by two orphans, Sahl and Suhail, sons of Rafia Bin Umro. He paid ten Dinars for the areas from the money of Abu Bakr Al Sideeq. The site of the Mosque was occupied by Palm trees, ruins and graves, so the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, ordered to transfer the graves, palm trees were cut, and the bases of the Mosque were built to height of one fathom. At the beginning, there was no roof, and then it was roofed by Palm stumps and shaded with Palm branches. After that they smoothed it with mud and they white washed it. Also, they made a court in its center, while the Kiblah Direction was towards Jerusalem, and three doors were opened. When the Kiblah was changed to Al Kaaba, the position of Al Qiblah in the Mosque has changed, and some doors were closed. The area of the Mosque was 1050 Square Meters, as its Length was 35 Meters and its width was 30 meters.
In the year seven of Al Hijrah, after Khaibar, The Prophet Peace of Allah be upon him, in- creased the area from east and west Directions, so the area became 2,500 Square Meters, and the shape became a Square with side Length of 50 Meters.
In the year 29 H, Othman Bin Affan may Allah be pleased with him, increased the area of the Mosque about 5 Meters to the South, 15 Meters to the North and 10 Meters to the East , and the area became 4,200 Square Meters. Omer built the Mosque with Sun-dried bricks, and made its columns of wood.
In the year 29 H, Othman Bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, renewed the building of the Mosque, and he added a riwaq at north, west, and south directions of area 496 square meters. Sayyidna Othman built the Mosque with inscribed stones and plaster, he made the columns of hallow stones and he put iron bars inside the stones and tilled it with brass. He made the roof sink.
In the year 88 H, Al Waleed Bin Malik ordered Omer Bin Abdul Aziz, Emir of Al Madinah, to renew the Mosque. Omer Bin Abdul Aziz, renewed the Mosque and he included the rooms of wives of Messenger Peace of Allah be upon him. He added 2,369 Square Meters at east, west and north, and built it with stones filled with iron and brass, he made the mosaic and marble and he roofed.
In the year 161 H, The Abbaside Al Mahdi increased the area of the Mosque 2,450 Square Meters. He completed his work in 165 H.
Al Mutasim renewed the Mosque when it was burned in the year 655 H. The work completed in the epoch of Al Zahir Baibers the Bandaqdari.
King Al Nasir Mohammed Bin Oalaoun renewed the roof to the east and west of the court, and added two Riwaqs to the south of the court, in the year 705 H and 706 H and 729 H.
In the year 879 H, King Oaiytby achieved an important restoration in the Mosque which included some roofs, columns, and he added 120 Square Meters at southeast direction.
In the night of l3th of Ramadan, 886 H, a thunderbolt hit the big minaret, and it transferred to the roof and destroyed it. Al Ashraf Oaiyt by sent Emir Sungur Al Jamali to Al Madinah in order to restore the Mosque. Sungur Al Jamali brought with him the necessary workers and equipments, and restored the Mosque. They added 1672 Square Meters at the eastern direction. King Qaiytby spent about 60,000 Egyptian Pounds for this restoration.
Sultan Saleem renewed the entire western wall from Al Rahma Gate to the Sulaimanic Minaret in the year 974 H, as indicated from the engraving at the inside face of the wall near Al Rahma Gate. He also built the Sulaimanic Mihrab in 938 H and the Prophetic Mihrab, as indicated from the shape of the later.
In the year 980, Sultan Saleem II restored the Mosque and built Mihrab to the west of the Prophetic Mihrab at the edge of the original Mosque towards Al Kiblah direction.
In the year 1265 H, Sultan Abdul Majeed Bin Murad, the Ottoman, ordered to restore the Mosque completely except the cabinet and some walls of tight bases. Old columns were replaced with better ones, northern and eastern riwaq were enlarged and made two instead of three, and the western riwaqs were made three instead of four. After that, two riwaqs were added at the Kiblah direction next to the courtyard of the Mosque. Some other items were added, and restoration completed in 1277 H in twelve years. Total cost was 750,000 Majeedi Ponds. The total area of the Mosque became four acres (12,600 Square Meters).
In the year 980, Sultan Saleem II restored the Mosque and built a second mihrab to the west of the original.
In the year 1265 the sultan Adul Majeed bin Murad ordered the restoration of the complete mosque as well as adding extra features.
In the year, 1336 H, Fakhri Basha repaired the Prophetic and Sulaimanic Mihrabs.
On Friday 11th Ramadan, 1370 H corresponding to l5TH June, 1950 A.D. King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman A1 Saud issued an order to accomplish a complete restoration to the Prophetic Holy Mosque and to expand it. Execution started in l0th July, 1951. Houses surrounding the Mosque were purchased for 115,000 Golden Ponds and removed. Foundation stone was laid in Rabia I, 1372 H, corresponding to November, 1952 A. D. work was completed in 6th Rabia I, 1375, corresponding to 22 TH October, 1955 A.D. Expenses were Fifty Millions of Saudi Riyals. The total area of the Mosque is 16327 Square Meters, 4056 Square Meters of it is an old Ottomanic building, and12271 Square Meters is a Modern Saudi Building.
The Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahad Bin Abdul Aziz ordered to expand the Prophetic Hoty Mosques, and the work is continuing until now.
HE King Fahd's Expansion of the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah
he expansion and development plans formulated by King Fahd for the Prophet's Mosque in the Holy City of Madinah were as ambitious as those for the Holy Mosque in Makkah.
Work on the Prophet's Mosque in Madinah was launched by King Fahd in 1985 (1405/06 AH) and the Mosque can now accommodate in excess of one million worshippers at the busiest times.
A unique feature of the expansion project was the development of the 27 main plazas. Each plaza is now capped by a state-of-the-art sliding dome, which can be rapidly opened or closed according to the weather and can be used in unison or separately as required. Elaborately carved stone friezes decorate the domes, and the plazas have been paved in decorative geometrically patterned marble tiles. The project also necessitated the building of six additional minarets, each 105-meter construction crowned with a 4 ton gold-plated crescent.
The development of the surrounding open areas and the seven newly constructed entrances ensure the smooth passage of pilgrims into the Prophet's Mosque. Indeed, the designers of the entire project have masterfully considered every eventuality of the existing and future capacity of the Mosque, and all this within the constraints of the existing architectural pattern. The building extensions have therefore been fitted out with a suitable number of staircases and escalators. The designers have added an extension to the roof area for praying purposes, whilst also allowing for the possibility of adding another floor to accommodate worshippers in the future.
Like the splendidly redeveloped Holy Mosque in the Holy City of Makkah, the Prophet's Mosque is now fully air-conditioned. The comfort of worshippers has been further enhanced, however, by the unique and ingeniously conceived shading system. Twelve enormous mechanically operated Teflon umbrellas, six in each court of the Mosque, have been developed by King Fahd's architects to protect pilgrims and help them withstand the high temperatures.
The Prophet's Mosque project also includes provision of extensive car parking facilities and the construction of a new dual carriageway, the Bab Al-salam Road, linking Madinat-Al-hujjaj on the western side of the Holy City of Madinah to the site of the Mosque. A labyrinth of service tunnels, drainage systems and supply networks also now criss-crosses the area. In fact, the magnitude of support services made it necessary to construct a vast basement complex in which to accommodate the service equipment and wiring needs, as well as various other maintenance works.
The reconstructed main gate leading into the Mosque site, the new King Fahad entrance, is situated on the northern side, and is topped with a profusion of domes and minarets on both sides. The exquisite decorations and architectural touches here and elsewhere are in complete harmony with earlier building work on the site, and they feature wonderfully crafted golden grilles, cornices, pillars, brass doors and marble works, as well as special ornately carved pigeon holes for the Holy Quran.
JANNATUL BAQEE (BAQEEA AL GARQAD)
Baqeea' Al Garqad, or Al Baqeea, is the cemetery of Al Madinah since the epoch of the Messenger,Peace of Allah be upon him and it is mentioned in the Seerah that the first people who will be resurrected, are Al Baqeea people.
It is preferred to visit Al Baqeea and invoked to Allah for the Companions, the honored wives of the Messenger (Peace of Allah be upon him), and the kind followers. This visit is an imitation to what the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, did.
The graveyard of Madinah, has a large number of Al Sahabah Al Kiram (companions of the Prophet) including Usman, Abbas, Hassan (the grandson of the Prophet), and wives and daughters of the Holy Prophet are buried. This graveyard is close to the tomb of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), right after the courtyard of Masjid-e-Nabawi.
Umar bin Jubair describes Al-Baqi as he saw it during his travel to Madina, saying "Al-Baqi is situated to the east of Madina. You enter it through the gate known as the gate of Al-Baqi. As you enter, the first grave you see on your left is that of Safiya, the Prophet's aunt, and further still is the grave of Malik bin Anas, the Imam of Madina. On his grave is raised a small dome.
In front of it is the grave of Ibrahim son of our Prophet (s) with a white dome over it, and next to it on the right is the grave of Abdul-Rahman son of Umar bin Al-Khattab, popularly known as Abu Shahma, whose father had kept punishing him till death overtook him. Facing it are the graves of Aqeel bin Abi Talib and Abdullah bin Ja'far Al-Tayyar. There, facing those graves is a small shrine containing the graves of the Prophet's wives, following by a shrine of Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib.
The grave of Hadhrat Hasan Bin Ali (RZ), situated near the gate to its right hand, has an elevated dome over it. His head lies at the feet of Hadhrat Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, and both graves are raised high above the ground; their walls are paneled with yellow plates and studded with beautiful star-shaped nails. This is how the grave of Ibrahim, son of the Prophet Sallahu Sallam has also been adorned.
Behind the shrine of Abbas there is the house attributed to Fatima, daughter of our Prophet (s), known as "Bayt Al-Ahzaan" (the house of grief) because it is the house she used to frequent in order to mourn the death of her father, the chosen one, peace be upon him. At the farthest end of Al-Baqi is the grave of the caliph Uthman, with a small dome over it, and there, next to it, is the grave of Fatima Bint Asad, mother of Ali b. Abi Talib (RZ)"
The honored wives of the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, were buried there at Al Baqeea except Al Sayeeda Khadeejah, may Allah be pleased with her, who was buried at Makkah Al Mukarramah in Al Maalah cemetery before his Hijrah, Peace of Allah be upon him, to Al Madinah Also, Al Saidha Maymounah, may Allah be please with her, is buried at Makkah.
The orthodox caliph, Othman Bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, is buried in Al Baqeea some reports mentioned that more than then thousand Companion are buried in Al Baqeea.
Over the centuries, Al-Baqi remained a sacred site with renovations being carried out.
SOME COMPANIONS WHO ARE BURIED IN AL BAQEE
Grave of Al Abbas, uncle of the Messenger (Peace of Allah be upon him).
Al Hassan Bin Ali, May Allah be pleased with him and. mother of Al Hassan Bin Ali, Fatimah ( May Allah be Pleased with her ) With Al Hassan Bin Ali, ( May Allah be pleased with him ) is his nephew Ali Zain Alabideen and his son Jaafar Al Saddiq, may Allah be please with them. Grave of Aqeel Bin Abi Talib and with him is his nephew Abdullah Bin Jaafar, may Allah be pleased with them.
Grave of Ibraheem, son of the Prophet, Peace of Allah be upon him.
Grave of Othman Bin Mazaun, may Allah be pleased with him, who was the first emigrant buried in Al Baqeea.
Grave of Abdul Rahman Bin Auf, May Allah be pleased with him, who promised Othman Bin Mazaun to be buried near him.
Graves of the wives of the Messenger of Allah, Peace of Allah be upon him except Khadeejah and Maymoanah, may Allah be pleased with them.Grave of Othman Bin Afan, may Allah be pleased with him, who is buried at the end of the first Baqeea, which was known by the name "Jish Kowkab".
Grave of Fattimah Bint Asad, mother of Ali Bin Abi Talib, may Allah honor him.
Grave of Safiyah Bint Abdul Motalib, May Allah be pleased with her, aunt of the messenger Peace of Allah be upon him.
Grave of Malik, the Imam of Al Madinah, may Allah forgive him.
Grave of sheikh Nafia, teacher of Imam Malik, may Allah forgive them.
Grave of Ismaeel Bin Jaffar Al Sadiq, may Allah forgive him.
Ziyarah around Madinah
Numerous Mosques (Quiblatain, Fath, Salman etc.) and the battle grounds of Ohad and Khandaq, as well as the garden of Fadak.
Masjid-e-Qiblatayn. On Monday 15th Rajab 2 AH, while the Holy Prophet (saw) was praying Dhuhr on this site, he was directed by Jibrail Alaihissalaam, to turn from Baytul Muqaddas (Jerusalem) and to face the Holy Kaaba. The Holy Prophet (saw) turned to face the new Qiblah without hesitation. The old and new Qiblahs can still be seen today in Masjid-e-Qiblatain. It was a miracle that one of the Holy Prophet (saw) turned exactly to face the Holy Kaaba without the use of any scientific instrument or computation.
The road to Madinah passes through Great Plains of basalt: the harra wastelands which provide dramatic reminders of the region's volcanic past. Several eruptions are recorded by the Muslim historians, the most fearsome taking place in 1257, when a volcano poured out fast-moving orange streams of lava, which were only deflected to pass to the east of the city by the fervent prayers of its inhabitants.
Desiccated by the merciless desert air, these seas of fire have dried to form black basalt plains which stretch beyond the horizon. They are Allah's defense of the city, whose glassy sharpness kept at bay the idolatrous invaders of Quraysh, forcing them to confront the believers at their only point of access, at the Battle of the Trench. The desolation of this landscape of flat blackness, interrupted by dry sarha bushes, and, far away, the shapely profile of extinct volcanoes, gives the impact of arrival an extraordinary dramatic power.
The proximity of the City, on the motorway inevitably dubbed the Hijra Highway, is first announced by the slip-road to Abyar Ali, the Wells of Ali. These are sweet water sources much frequented by pilgrims, eager to benefit from the medicinal properties of these deep, cold wells once owned by the Blessed Prophet's son-in-law.
Ten minutes drive, and Quba is reached. Here, the black barrenness of the harrat suddenly gives way to a verdant sea of green. Alfalfa, watermelons, cucumber and tomatoes grow here, between fruit trees and the ancient symbol of Madina, the date palm itself. In this prosperous suburb, now a place of coffee-shops and small parks can still be found the Zarqa wells from which the Blessed Prophet drank when first he reached the City, and which are the secret of the land's fertility.
Despite the sense of peace, few linger here. The pull of the Haram, the Sanctuary, is everywhere, and as the sun lowers in the west the pilgrims have thoughts only for the Prophet's Mosque. At this time, there is only one destination for visitors and city-dwellers alike. Today, it would be possible to switch off the traffic lights. For now in the late afternoon, every road has become a one-way street, pulling the visitor towards the cool, radiant heart of the city.
The mosque at Quba, the first place of worship founded in Islam, is impressive but sober. The 1986 reconstruction retains the familiar features of Madanese architecture, which are ribbed white domes, and basalt facing over a modest exterior that recalls Madina's primordial simplicity. The courtyard, screened overhead by day from the scorching heat, is flagged with black, red and white marble. Calligraphy by great Turkish masters soars overhead, proclaiming the uniqueness of this place. Arabesque latticework filters the light of the palm groves outside. Doves coo in the window-niches.
When Imam Ali [a] married the Prophet's daughter Sayyida az-Zahra [RZ], they first lived in a house on this open ground facing the mihrab of Masjid Quba (that can be seen behind). Their house was near the palm tree. Next to their house was the house of the Prophet's companion Hudhaifa Al-Yamani. The Saudi government has unfortunately demolished both the houses and leveled the ground.
Importance of Madinah Al-Munawara
Unique Merit of the Prophet's Mosque. The Prophet Muhammad himself participated in the construction of this mosque, called it "My Mosque" and led prayers in it for years. It is a great privilege for the pilgrims to visit our beloved Prophet's tomb. The Holy Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said:
Places to Visit in and around Madinah Al-Munawara
It is Mustahabb to visit the dwellers of Baqi in Madinah, and to visit other sacred places and the mosques and wells of the Prophet Muhammad
Historical Sites & Mosques in and around Madinah Al-Munawara
There are many other mosques in and around Madinah apart from Masjid Nabawi. The Prophet Muhammad and his Companions prayed in these mosques. It is mustahabb to visit these mosques, some of which still exist.
Mountains in and around Madinah Al-Munawara
There are several Mountains. Pilgrims must visit some of the more famous ones.
Wells in and around Madinah
WALL AND AHWASH OF AL MADINAH AL MUNAWARAH
Since the arrival of the Messenger, Peace of Allah be upon him, and building of this Holy Mosques, the Mosque became the core of the center of Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, the capital of Islam, and Houses were built around the Mosques, hence, the Mosques formed the main architectural body which was penetrated, as Ibraheem Rifaat Basha says in his book "The Mirror of the Two Holy Mosques ". Some tortuous streets and lanes which separating the alleys.
In 263H-876 A.D - Mohammed Bin Isaak Al Jaadi built a wall around Al Madinah to prevent it from attacks of Arabs and raids of Bedouins which had terrorized the residents of Al Madinah Al Munawwarah. The wall was built of sun dried bricks, and there were four gates in the wall:
The important gates of these are the Egyptian gate the Syrian gate, Al Khoumah gate, and Al Baqeea gate. The most famous districts which were inside the old wall were Al Agwat district, Hussein filiation district, Al Shamiah, Al Souq Al Kabeer, the area of Zuqaq Al Tayar and the area of Al Sahah street. The old city had a special architectural pattern.
Between 367 and 372 of Al Hijrah corresponding to 978 to 983 A.D. Adad Al Doulah Bin Buaih renewed the old destructed wall and rebuilt it again with black basalt stones, and that was to protect the city from being captured by the Fatimids.
In the year 540H-1145 A.D - The wall was rebuilt by Jamal Al Dein Mohammed Bin Abi Mansour, which had led to prevention of migration to Al Madinah.
The migrants to Al Madinah constructed small residential communities on the exterior side of the wall, and they surrounded their communities with walls called Al Ahwash. That Ahwash were a singular architectural entity and a strong family structure. There was a central market which was known by the name "Al Manakh", outside the wall.
In The Year 558 H-1162 A.d. Nour Al Dein Bin Zinkiyah Constructed A Second New Wall Which Surrounded The Old Wall And The Residential Communities That Were Outside The Old Wall At The Western And West Southern Direction, And He Made For It Some Gates Facing The Old Gates Such As, Al Anbariyah (Al Rasheedi) Gate Which Is Facing The Egyptian Gate. Also He Constructed A Gate Called Oubaa Gate.
In the period form 724 to 743 H Hisham Bin Abdul Malik constructed buildings, at Al Manakh market where he made shops and commercial stores in the ground floor, while the first floor and the other floors were used for dwelling. That, as Doctor Salih Limia Mustafa in the book of "Al Madinah Al Munawarah" was the first attempt to obtain a relationship between the residential and commercial areas. There were some commercial activities in the main streets between the gates and the Mosque.UP
AL AHWASH (or walled gardens of orchards)
Buildings of Al Madinah Al Munawarah which were located between the two walls were specialized with a different architectural pattern, and not as the buildings inside the old wall such as Al Agwat district. In Al Ahwash there were wide streets of 6 to 8 meters in width Al Ahwash, which were walls around a group of buildings, included 30 to 40 families. These ahwash were, for example, Haush Abu Sharshah, Haush Manaa, Haush Abu Jamab, Haush Al Sultan, Housh Abu-draa, Haush Al Magariba, Haush Umairah.
AL AQEEQ VALLEY
Al Aqeeq is a Place at the Western side of Al Madinah Al Munawarah where the Western Stony area ends there. The valley begins at the South from Beni Salem stony area, 220 Kilometers from Al Madinah Al Aqeeq valley ends at Al Gabah, about 28 Kilometers North of Al Madinah, where their is a big Dam now after Al Khaleel Many valleys discharge in Al Aqeeq valley during its Passage towards Al Madinah, as there are many Mountains and hills in this passage. Tuba, king of Yemen, called Al Aqeeq when he saw that the valley splits the stony area. Al Aqeeq means the splitter.
THE TWO VACANT LOTS OF AL MADINAH (ARSSA)
There are two vacant lots in Al Aqeeq valley, which are known. Since early times, these two vacant lots are:
The Minor Vacant lot, at the bottom of Al Jama and extends to castle of Saeed Bin Al Aas, which is inside the Royal Palace now, In the Minor vacant lot we find the Islamic University, Royal Paiace, Sheraton Hotel, Central King Fahad Hospital, Pilgrims city, and King Abdul Aziz University to the West.
The Prophet, Peace of Allah be upon him, had given most of the vacant lot to Bilal Bin Al Harith Al Maziny, and most of the Companions and their sons had bought from him.
ARCHEOLOGICAL PALACES AT AL AQEEQ
There are many houses, castles, Palaces, and forms in Al Aqeeq valley since the epoch of companions. At the Southeast there are Abu Hurairahs farm in Al Jathjathah plain, to the North there is the palace of Urwah Bin Al Zubair, May Allah be pleased with him, and the ruins of that Palace are still there to the East of Urwah well and the Mosque of the Two minarets. To the North there are Palaces of Ommiads such as the Palace of Al Marajil to the North of Jeddah Makkah Road. To the North of that Palace there is the Palace of Sakeenah Bint Al Hussain May Allah be pleased with her and her mother Al Rabab Bint Umroa Al Oais Al Kalbiah, then palace of Anbasah Bin Umroa Bin Othman May Allah be Pleased with him, and this Place is known by the name Al Anabis until today, which is the site of the Palace, farms and house of Anbasah and his descendants, then comes the Palaces of the Major vacant lot around Roumah well (Othman Well).
The remaining ruins of the Palaces and Farms which were in the villages of Al Aqeeq and Known today are the ruins of the Palaces of Saeed Bin Al Aas, and a short distance to the South there are Palaces of Mohammed bin Umro Bin Othman May Allah be Pleased with him, and to the North of that there are the Palace of his uncle Aasim, then the Palace of his brother Anbasah, then the Palace of Abdullah Bin Abu Bakr, Bin Umro Bin Othman may Allah be pleased with him.
Manners & Rituals when visiting Madinah
Send E-mail to
TSN@The-Saudi.Net with questions or
comments about The Saudi Network.